title Sociological Perspective Definition Definition article title The Social and Psychological Context of Religion: An Interpretive Framework article title Social and Personal Context of the Religious Life article title What is a Sociological View of Religion?article title Understanding the Religious and Philosophical Contexts article title A Sociological Framework of Religion definition article ...
I have been following this issue closely for some time now.
As a result, I am aware that the term “meritocratic” is used quite a bit in this area, and is a widely used shorthand for an idea that it is possible to be either meritocratic or not.
In its most basic sense, a meritocratic society is one in which all members of a group are equally entitled to the best and the worst, regardless of how they are related to the group.
The theory that meritocratic societies are more egalitarian than competitive or hierarchical societies is not new; the idea is actually very old.
In the early 20th century, the sociologist Robert Sampson proposed that meritocracy is a result of “the fact that the social position of the people is the main determinant of their merit and the degree of their prestige.”
The idea that merit is relative to status has been used to justify many social policies since the 19th century.
For instance, in the United States, the Fair Housing Act of 1968 requires that all houses sold within the same community to be located in the same neighborhood.
In Canada, the Residential Tenancies Act of 2000 allows for the construction of single-family houses in the most desirable areas of a neighbourhood.
It is a very simple idea.
As long as the housing situation is such that the family in question is “above the average,” the family should be able to buy the house and the owner should be rewarded accordingly.
However, the theory is not really new.
Even before the 20th-century, the idea that there is a fundamental meritocracy underlying human societies had been a popular theory in many fields of social science.
In 1874, French sociologist Jean-Paul Sartre, in his work, Études politiques et sociales, wrote, “There are certain principles of social justice which, however complex, and however difficult to define, are always present in the minds of men and women alike.”
Sartre wrote of “merits” and “prejudices,” which he termed “the most common of human instincts.”
He described the human “preference for a certain group” and concluded that, “It is an instinct which determines human behaviour, and therefore can be understood only in terms of this instinct.”
In his later writings, Sartres became more specific, writing that “The human preference for a particular group is, in fact, the principle of social injustice, for the more that one group is favoured over another, the more injustice results.”
He also argued that there were “principalities” that were more likely to be disadvantaged than others.
“A prime prime factor in the difference of advantage and disadvantage in a society, in its development, in all its departments, is the tendency of a large minority to exercise a dominant position in a particular area,” he wrote.
“The prime factor of inequality is that the people are more likely than the majority to suffer injustice.”
Another famous theorist of meritocracy was the British economist Robert Millard, who argued that “merittocracy is not merely the state of a nation in which every man is entitled to all the advantages of society, but is, rather, the state in which the most advantaged and the most disadvantaged live.”
Millard was the founder of the British National Socialists (BNS) and later of the modern British National Party.
Millard’s work was influential in Britain for many decades, and the term meritocracy, as used by the sociologists who studied it, has been applied to various aspects of British society.
As a result: A more accurate description of meritocratic principles than meritocracy has been coined by the British historian of economics John Maynard Keynes, who wrote in 1937, that “the meritocratic theory has a certain primacy in the British mind as an explanatory and normative explanation of modern social problems, as well as a powerful incentive to a new era of social progress.”
A more precise description of how a meritocracy system works has been developed by the economist Robert Sampsons.
In a 2003 article titled “The Meritocratic Principle: An Evolutionary Approach to the Problem of Social Mobility,” Sampson wrote that “there is no need to resort to any other definition of ‘merit.’
Merit means ‘fit,’ but it does not mean ‘perfect.'”
Instead, he writes, “it means that we should be aiming at an equal distribution of the advantages and disadvantages of each social class.”
Since the 1950s, Sampson has been studying the role of merit and social mobility in shaping the modern world.
Sampson argues that in a meritocratically based society, “there will be many more opportunities for people to acquire good education, good jobs, and good connections, all of which can make a