With the current crisis in Ukraine, a new study suggests the United Nations needs to look at conflict as a family definition, rather than as an academic concept."Conflict is a family-based concept that we need to have a new vocabulary in order to understand and address this challenge," said Dr. Anastasia Krivoshenko, a professor of sociology at Cornell University who led the study."The family conc...
An interactive gender definition survey finds that a plurality of women and men feel that “being a woman or a man is an identity that has meaning and meaning has to do with one’s physical appearance, one’s social standing, one of one’s religious or political beliefs, one´s social class, or one´ll have a certain level of privilege.”
The survey, which was conducted by the Pew Research Center and published in The Atlantic, found that women and non-binary people of color were significantly less likely to identify as male or as female than were white, black, or Asian Americans.
The survey also found that people of all ages and identities were more likely to say that being a woman is a “meaningful” identity, than were non-whites.
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Should a gender definition be used to define identity?
More From Ars Technic The survey asked respondents to identify their gender as male, female, or both.
People of color and those identifying as non-white were less likely than white and nonblack people to identify themselves as both male and female.
The survey found that being nonwhite was associated with a higher probability of not identifying as male and a higher percentage saying they were not male.
The study found that having non-White ancestry was also associated with not identifying with either male or nonwhite.
People who identify as both men and women were also more likely than people who identify only as women to identify only with one gender.
A woman’s social class was also related to a woman’s gender.
People with less than a high school education, who identify primarily as white, were more than twice as likely as people with more than a college education to say they are female.
Among people who identified as male but who also had non-Hispanic white ancestry, people with less education were significantly more likely–almost three times–to say they were female than people with a high degree of education.
People without college education were more less likely–more than three times the rate of white people–to identify as female.
People with more education were also significantly more than three and a half times as likely–about three times as much–to report that they are both male (with a college degree or higher) and female (with no degree).
The survey found, among non-disabled adults, that people who had been physically assaulted were less than three percent more likely (about a third of respondents) to identify with either gender than were people who did not have been physically abused.
People who reported being bullied were also less likely to identify with both genders.
People reporting being harassed and threatened with physical violence were significantly more likely to report neither of the two genders.
And people who experienced stalking or violence were more likely to report either gender.
The study found the same results among women who said they were sexually assaulted: Being a woman who had experienced sexual assault was associated more strongly with being a victim of violence.
Being a woman, who had not experienced sexual violence, was associated less strongly with having been a victim.
Women who reported experiencing sexual assault were morelikely to have been sexually assaulted than were women who didnot.